The Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which infect blood-feeding triatomine bugs to finally reach mammal hosts. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and is ranked among the 13 neglected tropical diseases worldwide. Currently, an estimate of 7 million people is infected by T. cruzi, leading to about 22 000 deaths per year throughout the Americas. As occurs with other vectors, a major question towards control programs is what makes a susceptible bug. In this review, we focus on findings linked to insect gut structure and microbiota, immunity, genetics, blood sources, abiotic factors (with special reference to ambient temperature and altitude) to understand the interactions occurring between T. cruzi and triatomine bugs, under a co-evolutionary scenario. These factors lead to varying fitness benefits and costs for bugs, explaining why infection in the insect takes place and how it varies in time and space. Our analysis highlights that major factors are gut components and microbiota, blood sources and temperature. Although their close interaction has never been clarified, knowledge reviewed here may help to boost the success of triatomine control programs, reducing the use of insecticides.

What makes an effective Chagas disease vector? Factors underlying Trypanosoma cruzi-triatomine interactions

Benelli, Giovanni;
2018-01-01

Abstract

The Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which infect blood-feeding triatomine bugs to finally reach mammal hosts. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and is ranked among the 13 neglected tropical diseases worldwide. Currently, an estimate of 7 million people is infected by T. cruzi, leading to about 22 000 deaths per year throughout the Americas. As occurs with other vectors, a major question towards control programs is what makes a susceptible bug. In this review, we focus on findings linked to insect gut structure and microbiota, immunity, genetics, blood sources, abiotic factors (with special reference to ambient temperature and altitude) to understand the interactions occurring between T. cruzi and triatomine bugs, under a co-evolutionary scenario. These factors lead to varying fitness benefits and costs for bugs, explaining why infection in the insect takes place and how it varies in time and space. Our analysis highlights that major factors are gut components and microbiota, blood sources and temperature. Although their close interaction has never been clarified, knowledge reviewed here may help to boost the success of triatomine control programs, reducing the use of insecticides.
2018
de Fuentes-Vicente, José A; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, Ana E; Flores-Villegas, A Laura; Lowenberger, Carl; Benelli, Giovanni; Salazar-Schettino, Paz M; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/949565
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