Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare autosomal neurometabolic disorder caused by a deficit of AADC, a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, which catalyzes the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. While many studies have highlighted the molecular defects of the homozygous pathogenic variants, so far only a study investigated heterozygous variants at protein level. Here, we report a clinical case of one AADC deficiency compound heterozygous patient bearing the A91V mutation and the novel C410G mutation. To elucidate its enzymatic phenotype, the A91V and C410G homodimers were first expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. Although both apo variants display an unaltered overall tertiary structure, they show a ̴ 20-fold decreased PLP binding affinity. The C410G mutation only causes a ̴ 4-fold decrease of the catalytic efficiency, while the A91V mutation causes a 1300-fold decrease of the kcat/Km, and changes in the holoAADC consisting in a marked alteration of the tertiary structure and the coenzyme microenvironment. Structural analyses of these mutations are in agreement with these data. Unfortunately, the C410G/A91V heterodimer was constructed, expressed and purified in rather modest amount. Anyway, measurements of decarboxylase activity indicate that its putative kcat value is lower than that predicted by averaging the kcat values of the two parental enzymes. This indicates a negative interallelic complementation between the C410G and A91V monomers. Overall, this study allowed to relate the clinical to the enzymatic phenotype of the patient and to extend knowledge in the clinical and molecular pathogenesis of AADC deficiency.

A novel compound heterozygous genotype associated with aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: Clinical aspects and biochemical studies

Battini R.
;
2019-01-01

Abstract

Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare autosomal neurometabolic disorder caused by a deficit of AADC, a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, which catalyzes the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. While many studies have highlighted the molecular defects of the homozygous pathogenic variants, so far only a study investigated heterozygous variants at protein level. Here, we report a clinical case of one AADC deficiency compound heterozygous patient bearing the A91V mutation and the novel C410G mutation. To elucidate its enzymatic phenotype, the A91V and C410G homodimers were first expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. Although both apo variants display an unaltered overall tertiary structure, they show a ̴ 20-fold decreased PLP binding affinity. The C410G mutation only causes a ̴ 4-fold decrease of the catalytic efficiency, while the A91V mutation causes a 1300-fold decrease of the kcat/Km, and changes in the holoAADC consisting in a marked alteration of the tertiary structure and the coenzyme microenvironment. Structural analyses of these mutations are in agreement with these data. Unfortunately, the C410G/A91V heterodimer was constructed, expressed and purified in rather modest amount. Anyway, measurements of decarboxylase activity indicate that its putative kcat value is lower than that predicted by averaging the kcat values of the two parental enzymes. This indicates a negative interallelic complementation between the C410G and A91V monomers. Overall, this study allowed to relate the clinical to the enzymatic phenotype of the patient and to extend knowledge in the clinical and molecular pathogenesis of AADC deficiency.
2019
Montioli, R.; Battini, R.; Paiardini, A.; Tolve, M.; Bertoldi, M.; Carducci, C.; Leuzzi, V.; Borri Voltattorni, C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/994715
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