Polyphenols are a family of compounds present in grapes, musts, and wines. Their dosage is associated with the grape ripening, correct must fermentation, and final wine properties. Owing to their anti-inflammatory properties, they are also relevant for health applications. To date, such compounds are detected mainly via standard chemical analysis, which is costly for constant monitoring and requires a specialized laboratory. Cheap and portable sensors would be desirable to reduce costs and speed up measurements. This paper illustrates the development of strategies for sensor surface chemical functionalization for polyphenol detection. We perform measurements by using a commercial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring apparatus. Chemical functionalizations are based on proteins (bovine serum albumin and gelatin type A) or customized peptides derived from istatine-5 and murine salivary protein-5. Commercial oenological additives containing pure gallic tannins or proanthocyanidins, dissolved in water or commercial wine, are used for the analysis. Results indicate that selected functionalizations enable the detection of the two different tannin families, suggesting a relationship between the recorded signal and concentration. Gelatin A also demonstrates the ability to discriminate gallic tannins from proanthocyanidins. Outcomes are promising and pave the way for the exploitation of such devices for precision oenology.
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