Immune dysregulation, in combination with genetic and epigenetic alterations, induces an excessive proliferation of uncontrolled melanoma cells followed by dissemination of the tumor cells to distant sites, invading organs and creating metastasis. Although immunotherapy, checkpoint inhibitors and molecular targeted therapies have been developed as treatment options for advanced melanoma, there are specific mechanisms by which cancer cells can escape treatment. One of the main factors associated with reduced response to therapy is the ability of residual tumor cells to persist in a dormant state, without proliferation. This comprehensive review aimed at understanding the genetic basis of dormancy/awakening phenomenon in metastatic melanoma will help identify the possible therapeutical strategies that might eliminate melanoma circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or keep them in the dormant state forever, thereby repressing tumor relapse and metastatic spread.

The Genetic Basis of Dormancy and Awakening in Cutaneous Metastatic Melanoma

Janowska A.;Iannone M.;Romanelli M.;Filippi L.;Del Re M.;Dini V.
2022

Abstract

Immune dysregulation, in combination with genetic and epigenetic alterations, induces an excessive proliferation of uncontrolled melanoma cells followed by dissemination of the tumor cells to distant sites, invading organs and creating metastasis. Although immunotherapy, checkpoint inhibitors and molecular targeted therapies have been developed as treatment options for advanced melanoma, there are specific mechanisms by which cancer cells can escape treatment. One of the main factors associated with reduced response to therapy is the ability of residual tumor cells to persist in a dormant state, without proliferation. This comprehensive review aimed at understanding the genetic basis of dormancy/awakening phenomenon in metastatic melanoma will help identify the possible therapeutical strategies that might eliminate melanoma circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or keep them in the dormant state forever, thereby repressing tumor relapse and metastatic spread.
Janowska, A.; Iannone, M.; Fidanzi, C.; Romanelli, M.; Filippi, L.; Del Re, M.; Martins, M.; Dini, V.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/1144822
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