To adapt to many different objects and tasks, hands are very complex systems with many degrees of freedom, sensors and actuators. In robotics, such complexity comes at the cost of size and weight of the hardware of devices, but it strongly affects also the ease of their programming. A possible approach to simplification consists in coupling some of the degrees of freedom, thus affording a reduction of the number of effective inputs, and eventually leading to more efficient, simpler and reliable designs. Such coupling can be at the software level, to achieve faster, more intuitive programmability; or at the hardware level, through either rigid or compliant physical couplings between joints. Physical coupling between actuators and simplification of control through the reduction of independent inputs is also an often–reported interpretation of human hand movement data, where studies have demonstrated that few “postural synergies” explain most of the variance in hand configurations used for grasping different objects. Together with beneficial simplifica- tions, the reduction of the number of independent inputs to a few coupled motions or “synergies” has also an impact on the ability of the hand to dexterously controlling grasp forces and in-hand manipulation. In this paper, through the analysis of a quasi–static model, grasp structural properties related to contact force controllability and object manipulability are defined. The controllable internal forces and motions of the grasped object are related to the actuated inputs: the paper investigates to what extent a hand with many joints can exploit postural synergies to control force and motion of the grasped object.

On Motion and Force Controllability of Precision Grasps with Hands Actuated by Soft Synergies

GABICCINI, MARCO;BICCHI, ANTONIO
2013

Abstract

To adapt to many different objects and tasks, hands are very complex systems with many degrees of freedom, sensors and actuators. In robotics, such complexity comes at the cost of size and weight of the hardware of devices, but it strongly affects also the ease of their programming. A possible approach to simplification consists in coupling some of the degrees of freedom, thus affording a reduction of the number of effective inputs, and eventually leading to more efficient, simpler and reliable designs. Such coupling can be at the software level, to achieve faster, more intuitive programmability; or at the hardware level, through either rigid or compliant physical couplings between joints. Physical coupling between actuators and simplification of control through the reduction of independent inputs is also an often–reported interpretation of human hand movement data, where studies have demonstrated that few “postural synergies” explain most of the variance in hand configurations used for grasping different objects. Together with beneficial simplifica- tions, the reduction of the number of independent inputs to a few coupled motions or “synergies” has also an impact on the ability of the hand to dexterously controlling grasp forces and in-hand manipulation. In this paper, through the analysis of a quasi–static model, grasp structural properties related to contact force controllability and object manipulability are defined. The controllable internal forces and motions of the grasped object are related to the actuated inputs: the paper investigates to what extent a hand with many joints can exploit postural synergies to control force and motion of the grasped object.
Pratichizzo, D; Malvezzi, M; Gabiccini, Marco; Bicchi, Antonio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/231145
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