This review describes the capability of analytical pyrolysis-based techniques to provide data on lignin composition and on the chemical alteration undergone by lignin in archaeological wooden objects. Applications of Direct Exposure Mass Spectrometry (DE-MS), Evolved Gas Analysis Mass Spectrometry (EGA-MS), and single and double-shot Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) in archaeological lignin characterisation are described. With comparison to cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin is generally less prone to most degradation processes affecting archaeological artefacts in burial environments, especially waterlogged ones, which are the most favourable for wood preservation. Nevertheless, lignin also undergoes significant chemical changes. As wood from waterlogged environments is mainly composed of lignin, knowledge of its chemical structure and degradation pathways is fundamental for choosing preventive conservation conditions and for optimising consolidation methods and materials, which directly interact with the residual lignin. Analytical pyrolysis coupled with mass spectrometry, used in several complementary operational modes, can gather information regarding the chemical modifications and the state of preservation of lignin, especially concerning oxidation and depolymerisation phenomena. Several applications to the analysis of wood from archaeological artefacts affected by different conservation problems are presented to showcase the potential of analytical pyrolysis in various scenarios that can be encountered when investigating archaeological waterlogged wood.

Analytical Pyrolysis and Mass Spectrometry to Characterise Lignin in Archaeological Wood

Jeannette Jacqueline Lucejko
;
Diego Tamburini;Francesca Modugno;Erika Ribechini;Maria Perla Colombini
2021-01-01

Abstract

This review describes the capability of analytical pyrolysis-based techniques to provide data on lignin composition and on the chemical alteration undergone by lignin in archaeological wooden objects. Applications of Direct Exposure Mass Spectrometry (DE-MS), Evolved Gas Analysis Mass Spectrometry (EGA-MS), and single and double-shot Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) in archaeological lignin characterisation are described. With comparison to cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin is generally less prone to most degradation processes affecting archaeological artefacts in burial environments, especially waterlogged ones, which are the most favourable for wood preservation. Nevertheless, lignin also undergoes significant chemical changes. As wood from waterlogged environments is mainly composed of lignin, knowledge of its chemical structure and degradation pathways is fundamental for choosing preventive conservation conditions and for optimising consolidation methods and materials, which directly interact with the residual lignin. Analytical pyrolysis coupled with mass spectrometry, used in several complementary operational modes, can gather information regarding the chemical modifications and the state of preservation of lignin, especially concerning oxidation and depolymerisation phenomena. Several applications to the analysis of wood from archaeological artefacts affected by different conservation problems are presented to showcase the potential of analytical pyrolysis in various scenarios that can be encountered when investigating archaeological waterlogged wood.
2021
Lucejko, JEANNETTE JACQUELINE; Tamburini, Diego; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, MARIA PERLA
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1066697
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 23
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 19
social impact