Background: Dietary supplements based on tannin extracts or essential oil compounds (EOC) have been repeatedly reported as a promising feeding strategy to reduce the environmental impact of ruminant husbandry. A previous batch culture screening of various supplements identified selected mixtures with an enhanced potential to mitigate ruminal methane and ammonia formation. Among these, Q-2 (named after quebracho extract and EOC blend 2, composed of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol) and C-10 (chestnut extract and EOC blend 10, consisting of oregano and thyme essential oils and limonene) have been investigated in detail in the present study with the semi-continuous rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) in three independent runs. For this purpose, Q-2 and C-10, dosed according to the previous study, were compared with a non-supplemented diet (negative control, NC) and with one supplemented with the commercial EOC-based Agolin® Ruminant (positive control, PC). Results: From d 5 to 10 of fermentation incubation liquid was collected and analysed for pH, ammonia, protozoa count, and gas composition. Feed residues were collected for the determination of ruminal degradability. On d 10, samples of incubation liquid were also characterised for bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and 26S ribosomal large subunit gene amplicons. Regardless of the duration of the fermentation period, Q-2 and C-10 were similarly efficient as PC in mitigating either ammonia (−37% by Q-2, −34% by PC) or methane formation (−12% by C-10, −12% by PC). The PC was also responsible for lower feed degradability and bacterial and fungal richness, whereas Q-2 and C-10 effects, particularly on microbiome diversities, were limited compared to NC. Conclusions: All additives showed the potential to mitigate methane or ammonia formation, or both, in vitro over a period of 10 d. However, several differences occurred between PC and Q-2/C-10, indicating different mechanisms of action. The pronounced defaunation caused by PC and its suggested consequences apparently determined at least part of the mitigant effects. Although the depressive effect on NDF degradability caused by Q-2 and C-10 might partially explain their mitigation properties, their mechanisms of action remain mostly to be elucidated.

Evaluation of ruminal methane and ammonia formation and microbiota composition as affected by supplements based on mixtures of tannins and essential oils using Rusitec

Foggi G.
Primo
Conceptualization
;
Conte G.;Agnolucci M.;Mantino A.;Buccioni A.;Mele M.
Ultimo
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Dietary supplements based on tannin extracts or essential oil compounds (EOC) have been repeatedly reported as a promising feeding strategy to reduce the environmental impact of ruminant husbandry. A previous batch culture screening of various supplements identified selected mixtures with an enhanced potential to mitigate ruminal methane and ammonia formation. Among these, Q-2 (named after quebracho extract and EOC blend 2, composed of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol) and C-10 (chestnut extract and EOC blend 10, consisting of oregano and thyme essential oils and limonene) have been investigated in detail in the present study with the semi-continuous rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) in three independent runs. For this purpose, Q-2 and C-10, dosed according to the previous study, were compared with a non-supplemented diet (negative control, NC) and with one supplemented with the commercial EOC-based Agolin® Ruminant (positive control, PC). Results: From d 5 to 10 of fermentation incubation liquid was collected and analysed for pH, ammonia, protozoa count, and gas composition. Feed residues were collected for the determination of ruminal degradability. On d 10, samples of incubation liquid were also characterised for bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and 26S ribosomal large subunit gene amplicons. Regardless of the duration of the fermentation period, Q-2 and C-10 were similarly efficient as PC in mitigating either ammonia (−37% by Q-2, −34% by PC) or methane formation (−12% by C-10, −12% by PC). The PC was also responsible for lower feed degradability and bacterial and fungal richness, whereas Q-2 and C-10 effects, particularly on microbiome diversities, were limited compared to NC. Conclusions: All additives showed the potential to mitigate methane or ammonia formation, or both, in vitro over a period of 10 d. However, several differences occurred between PC and Q-2/C-10, indicating different mechanisms of action. The pronounced defaunation caused by PC and its suggested consequences apparently determined at least part of the mitigant effects. Although the depressive effect on NDF degradability caused by Q-2 and C-10 might partially explain their mitigation properties, their mechanisms of action remain mostly to be elucidated.
2024
Foggi, G.; Terranova, M.; Daghio, M.; Amelchanka, S. L.; Conte, G.; Ineichen, S.; Agnolucci, M.; Viti, C.; Mantino, A.; Buccioni, A.; Kreuzer, M.; Mele, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1230427
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