Background: Hypoxia is a driving force in pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma (PDAC) growth, metastasis and chemoresistance. The muscle-isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) constitutes a major checkpoint for the switch to anaerobic glycolysis, ensuring supply of energy and anabolites in hypoxic-environments. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological interaction of novel LDH-A inhibitors in combination with gemcitabine in PDAC cells. Methods: Lactate dehydrogenase A levels were studied by quantitative RT–PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence and activity assays in 14 PDAC cells, including primary-cell-cultures and spheroids, in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cell proliferation, migration and key determinants of drug activity were evaluated by sulforhodamine-B-assay, wound-healing assay, PCR and LC-MS/MS. Results: Lactate dehydrogenase A was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions (1% O2), where the novel LDH-A inhibitors proved to be particularly effective (e.g., with IC50 values of 0.9 vs 16.3 μM for NHI-1 in LPC006 in hypoxia vs normoxia, respectively). These compounds induced apoptosis, affected invasiveness and spheroid-growth, reducing expression of metalloproteinases and cancer-stem-like-cells markers (CD133+). Their synergistic interaction with gemcitabine, with combination index values <0.4 in hypoxia, might also be attributed to modulation of gemcitabine metabolism, overcoming the reduced synthesis of phosphorylated metabolites. Conclusion: Lactate dehydrogenase A is a viable target in PDAC, and novel LDH-A inhibitors display synergistic cytotoxic activity with gemcitabine, offering an innovative tool in hypoxic tumours.
|Autori:||Mina Maftouh; Amir Avan; Rocco Sciarrillo; Carlotta Granchi; Leticia G. Leon; Reshma Rani; Niccola Funel; Kees Smid; Richard Honeywell; Ugo Boggi; Filippo Minutolo; Godefridus J. Peters; Elisa Giovannetti|
|Titolo:||Synergistic interaction of novel lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors with gemcitabine against pancreatic cancer cells in hypoxia|
|Anno del prodotto:||2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1038/bjc.2013.681|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|